Interpersonal Aspects of Nursing has 9 ratings and 0 reviews: Published August 1st by F. A. Davis Company, pages, Hardcover. Title, Interpersonal aspects of nursing. Author, Joyce Travelbee. Edition, 2. Publisher, F. A. Davis Company, Original from, the University of Michigan. Title, Interpersonal Aspects of Nursing. Author, Joyce Travelbee. Publisher, F. A. Davis Company, Length, pages. Export Citation, BiBTeX EndNote.
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It is a universal question, yet we all attribute its meaning personally.
Joyce Travelbee, a nurse theorist of historical significance, set about to provide the basis for such discovery. In her grand theory, the Human-to-Human Relationship, Travelbee writes: Through phases of her theory, including rapport, empathy, and sympathy, one establishes ways to garner the meaning of suffering Travelbee, This content could easily apply to all advanced practitioners as well. Joyce Travelbee believed that everything the nurse as a human said or did with an ill person as a human helped to fulfill the purpose of nursing.
The nurse and the patient are human beings, relating to each other. The process is that of interaction. Nursing is an interpersonal connection, whereby the nurse facilitates the progress of a patient, a family, or a community in preventing or coping with an illness or with suffering in ways that could lead to finding meaning with the experience.
The nurse is responsible for educating and providing strategies to assist the patient in avoiding or alleviating the distress of unmet needs Pokorny, ; Travelbee, Thus, the AP has an opportunity to promote human-to-human connections.
Travelbee expresses the importance for nurses to understand their concept of what is human, for their relationship with another human being will be otherwise determined by that concept.
The human being is defined by Travelbee, as “a unique irreplaceable individual—a one-time being in this world, like yet unlike any person who ever lived or ever will live” p Human beings are evolving; they are ever in the present but becoming.
As we understand our own humanness, we grow and develop more humanness. The AP promotes patient- or human- centered care, which acknowledges the individuality of each human being. Defining the concept of patient is a stereotype and category. Travelbee, impresses upon nurses that “actually there are no patients. There are only individual human beings in need of care, services and assistance of other human beings” p And since nurses are human beings, Travelbee, notes: Illness is a classification and category.
An individual will react to illness depending on culture, symptom burden, and whether there is a related significance to those symptoms.
As noted, every human experiences sufferingas it is a part of being human. Travelbee pointed out: Without hope, there is no direction for lessening suffering. Communication is a necessity for good nursing and a fundamental part of this theory. Travelbee expresses striving to communicate “to know ill persons, to ascertain and meet nursing needs and to achieve the purpose of nursing” p Thus, the AP promotes the ever-evolving human-to-human connections that promote the understanding of illness and suffering.
Human relationships become therapeutic as they pass through expected steps or stages. Travelbee stated as cited by Pokorny, that nursing is accomplished beginning with “the original encounter, which progresses through stages of emerging identities, developing feelings of empathy and later, sympathy, until the nurse and the patient attain rapport” p Mary Ellen Doona related: The Human-to-Human Relationship is established as an interactive process.
The inaugural meeting or encounter may immediately establish a connection. Unfortunately, this connection may not be positive. Through the emergence of various personal identities, both humans attempt to relate or find meaning in their encounter. Through our existence, we find meaning that creates who we are.
Our uniqueness is defined by our perceptions of self and other. It is rather a predisposition, an attitude, a type of thinking and feeling characterized by deep personal interest and concern” p Sister Callista Roy noted: Basically, nursing is a relationship of human being to human being” p The AP is keenly aware that suffering is not always blatant or acknowledged.
As a human who understands humanness, the AP anticipates human suffering, even in silence, and promotes a therapeutic relationship that allows for the exploration of meaning. Rapport is defined by Travelbee as “a process, a happening, an experience between two persons. It may not be a mutual affair at first, but the sharing of the experience and participation in it grow as each individual unfolds him or herself in the interpersonal situation Rapport is a dynamic, fluctuating affair and it will change as changes occur in the interpersonal situation or relationship” Travelbee,p Central to the discipline of nursing are the four phenomena of interest: Jacqueline Fawcett explained: No attempt is made to be specific or concrete at the metaparadigm level” p Person is defined as being human.
Nurse as well as patient, family, or community under the umbrella of illness is human. Through this search for meaning he creates himself” p Human beings are unique, irreplaceable, ever evolving, and interacting Travelbee, Health is defined as being both subjective and objective.
Human beings perceive and relate their own sense of health and illness. To be human is to experience illness. Humans may see illness as having merit or as unavoidable.
The presence of distress may not cause one to seek help Travelbee, Instead, Travelbee relates that the nurse must be observant of the patient in the place where the patient is present in order to ascertain that the patient is in need. She speaks of experiences encountered by all humans: Her work with psychiatric patients and community as well as hospitalized individuals encompass an awareness of differing environments Travelbee,; Doona, Nursing is better defined.
Foremost, the assumption of nursing is to establish a human-to-human relationship. The nurse also assists with trying to find meaning in these experiences Travelbee,; Pokorny, All contact with ill persons helps fulfill the purpose of nursing. One could debate that in an oncology setting, there would be no difference between treating cancers as chronic diseases than treating illness in a primary care setting, except the triggers of distress occur more often.
For the individual or family facing a cancer diagnosis, even if the treatment is successful, there remain an ongoing evaluation through scans and a diagnostic workup, which encourage distress and suffering secondary to the anticipation of progression of disease.
Appraising Travelbee’s Human-to-Human Relationship Model
Getting to know another human being is as important as performing procedures. Conceptual frameworks are constructs joined together as a basis to form a new theory. The analysis and evaluation of theory involve objective descriptions and judgments about the extent to which theories meet certain criteria Fawcett, Since the understanding of nursing theory changes as it is analyzed and tested, it is helpful to critically appraise concepts and constructs, creating a framework upon which to further build.
The explication of theory is a critical and necessary process that is both empiric and aesthetic, thus allowing for alternative opportunities to find scientific truth. Various sources Travelbee, report a vague nurwing for defining her theory, but she interpersonla defines the concept of suffering, hope, illness, and the steps or phases necessary to establish a rapport Travelbee, This is not the case. Multiple variables exist to define our being human, thus separating us via the level of distress and suffering.
How humans define or accept their distress and suffering is multifaceted. The Human-to-Human Relationship Theory has the potential for global use within nursing, as we are all human, we all have distress, and we all suffer. However, the individual human, family, or community must see his or her distress or illness as being in need of an intervention if a relationship is to develop. At quick glance, this theory defines concepts but does not have operational definitions for empiric research.
The descriptive structure of this theory is more concrete than its process. Travelbee provides nursing with the tragelbee for connecting to ill persons.
She has created a conceptual framework upon which to base therapeutic relationships with patients, families, and communities in distress or having the potential for suffering.
Interpersonal Aspects of Nursing
It is through this existential identification that one human being can relate interpesonal another travellbee being. The AP aspets promote self-reflection as human to help other humans connect. Care should be patient-centered. The theory is applicable to and has been used in the hospice movement, helping terminally ill individuals and their families find meaning in suffering and fostering hope, even at end of life Herth, The assumptions involve humans, who are nurses, relating to humans who are suffering, are in distress, or have the potential to suffer.
Travelbee stated as cited in Reed, Nurses perceive and understand the uniqueness of every ill human being and therefore facilitate their finding nursong in suffering Travelbee, travvelbee The AP has an opportunity to promote human-to-human connections. The author has no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.
National Oc for Biotechnology InformationU. J Adv Pract Oncol. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is for non-commercial purposes.
Concepts and Definitions Travelbee expresses the importance for nurses to understand their concept of what is human, for their relationship with another human being will be otherwise determined by that concept.
Assumptions Central to the discipline of nursing are the four phenomena of interest: The Critical Appraisal Conceptual frameworks are constructs joined together as a basis to form a new theory. Generalizability The Human-to-Human Relationship Theory has the potential for global use within nursing, as we are all human, we all have distress, and we all suffer.
Accessibility At quick glance, this theory defines concepts but does not have operational definitions for empiric research.